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MEDICAL MIMICS OF ABUSE & NEGLECT

INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES

Birth (46% of vaginal births result in SH)
Birth Trauma (Prolonged Labor, Forceps, Vacuum, etc)
Prematurity
Congenital Defect
Prematurity
Von Willebrand Disease
Hemophilia
Thrombocytopenia
Late Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin D Deficiency 
Leukemia
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Ruptured Vascular Malformation
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
Aneurysm
Hydrocephalisis
Coagulation Disorders
Vascular Malformations
Vaccine Reaction
Use of Blood Thinners
Hypertension
Blood Vessel Disorders (e.g., Arteriovenous Malformation or Aneurysm)
Benign Enlargement of the Subarachnoid Spaces
Macrocephaly
Accidental Injury
Coughing or Vomiting
Accidental Choking Episode
Use of anticoagulants (e.g., Heparin)

RETINAL HEMORRHAGES

Birth (45% of vaginal births result in RH)
Birth Trauma 
Prematurity
Hypertension
Bleeding Disorders
Leukemia
Meningitis/Sepsis/Endocarditis
Vasculitis
Cerebral Aneurysm
Retinal Disease (e.g., Infection, Hemangioma)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Anemia
Hypoxia
Hypotension
Papilledema
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Glutaric Aciduria Type 1
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Retinal Exams in Premature Infants
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Hypo- or Hypernatremia
Arteriovenous Malformations
Sub-acute Bacterial Endocarditis
Thrombocytopenia
Late Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin D Deficiency 
Leukemia
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Ruptured Vascular Malformation
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
Accidental Injury
Coughing or Vomiting
Accidental Choking Episode
Use of Anticoagulants (e.g., Heparin)

FRACTURES

Radiological Motion Artifact
Dysplastic Bone Abnormalities
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Metabolic Bone Disease
Congenital Insensitivity to Pain
Infectious Conditions
Birth Trauma (Forceps, Vacuum Extraction, C-section, etc)
Scoliosis
Osteomyelitis
Congenital Syphilis
Chondrodystrophies
Congenital Hydrocephalus
Osteoporosis
Accidental Injury
Osteopenia
Neuroblastoma
Nutritional Deficiencies
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin D Deficiency
Temporary Brittle Bone Disease
Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis
Infantile Myofibromatosis
Perthes’ Disease
Osteomalacia
Accidental Injury
Steroid Use
Alagille Syndrome
X-linked Hypophosphatemia 
Ehlers-Danlos
Inherited Systemic Hyalinosis

BRUISES

Mongolian Spots
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
Erythema Multiforme Hypersensitivity Vasculitis
Phytophotodermatitis
Millipedes Secretions
Contact Dermatitis and Allergic Reactions
Lice, Crabs
Coagulation Defect
Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Hemophilia
Von Willebrand Disease
Leukemia
Vitamin K Deficiency
Ingestion of Anticoagulants
Vitamin C Deficiency
Menkes Disease
Copper Deficiency
Seizures
Hyper-pigmented Skin Lesions
Congenital Insensitivity to Pain 
Glutaric Aciduria Type 2 
Marfan Syndrome
Accidental Injury

BURNS

Phytophotodermatitis
Impetigo (can cause cigarette-like burns)
Varicella
Epidermolysis Bullosa
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Diaper Dermatitis
Chilblains
Drug Eruption
Mechanical Abrasion
Chemical Burns (including commercial vinegar)
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Accidental Burns

FAILURE TO THRIVE

Short Bowel [Gut] Syndrome
Dubowitz Syndrome
Gastro Esophageal Reflux Association
Trifunctional Protein Deficiency
Metoclopramide
Glutaric Aciduria Type 1
Severe Chronic Neutropenia
Pseudohypoaldosteronism